Historical Statistics of the United States is a great collection of historical statistics from over 1000 sources, including 37,000+ data series. Topics range from migration and health to crime and justice, manufacturing and agriculture to elections and politics. Depending on the topic, data can range back to the 1700s.
Create and download colorful charts, graphs, and plots, along with the option of making customized tables and spreadsheets.
Data can be found via a keyword search or browsing topics under five main categories: Population, Work and Welfare, Economic Structure and Performance, Economic Sectors, and Governance and International Relations.
For comprehensive statistics that focus more on the past three decades, make sure to check out the companion source, Statistical Abstracts of the United States.